On This Day In History in 1885: The Statue of Liberty Arrives



"Give me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me.
I lift my lamp beside the golden door."





The Statue of Liberty, a gift of friendship from the people of France to the people of the United States, arrived in New York City's harbor on this day in 1885.

Originally known as "Liberty Enlightening the World," the statue was proposed by French historian Edouard Laboulaye to commemorate the Franco-American alliance during the American Revolution. Designed by French sculptor Frederic Auguste Bartholdi, the 151-foot statue was the form of a woman with an uplifted arm holding a torch. In February 1877, Congress approved the use of a site on New York Bedloe's Island, which was suggested by Bartholdi. In May 1884, the statue was completed in France, and three months later the Americans laid the cornerstone for its pedestal in New York. On June 19, 1885, the dismantled Statue of Liberty arrived in the New World, enclosed in more than 200 packing cases. Its copper sheets were reassembled, and the last rivet of the monument was fitted on October 28, 1886, during a dedication presided over by U.S. President Grover Cleveland.  In 1924, the Statue of Liberty was made a national monument.


Famous American Freemasons: The General

It never ceases to amaze me that I still get e-mails from people who are reading Famous American Freemasons: Volume I, which I published back in 2007.  I thought I'd share an excerpt, one of my favorite chapters, from that book. 

His Indian name was Conotocarius, the same name that had been given to his great-grandfather over a century before. He had a great love of the outdoors, of exploration, and of adventure. His first job was surveying the lands owned by the wealthy Fairfax family—lands that extended west of the Blue Ridge Mountains and into the wilderness of the Shenandoah Valley region. On one of his first grand adven-tures as a surveyor at the age of sixteen, Conotocarius found himself lost for awhile in the Blue Ridge Mountains. He en-countered a rattlesnake and swam his horses across rivers and streams bursting with water from the winter thaw. But despite the hardships of that first journey, he was not deterred; in fact, the journey invigorated him. On that same trip, he encountered a group of Indians, one of whom carried a scalp with him. When encouraged with rum, the Indians performed a rarely seen dance for Conotocarius—the war dance.


Little did that group of Indians know that Conotocarius would go on to become one of the greatest warriors and chiefs in the history of the world, but not a chief or warrior of the Indian nation. Conotocarius, which meant “town taker,” was aptly named. He would become famous for taking towns—Boston, Lexington, Yorktown, and New York. Conotocarius is better known in American history as General George Washington.

George Washington towered above the Second Continental Congress on June 16, 1775. He was a giant of a man for his time, standing over six feet tall with broad shoulders and massive hands. He was dressed in his blue uniform with buff trim, which he had taken to wearing to each session of the Second Continental Congress. Benjamin Rush said of him, "He has so much martial dignity in his deportment that you would distinguish him to be a general and a soldier from among ten thousand people."

Washington had not attended the vote the day before, but he now stood before the assembly and reluctantly accepted the commission for which the body had nominated him—commander in chief of the Continental Army. He had seemed reluctant to accept the nomination in both his speech and in his correspondence home. In fact, in a letter to his wife, Martha, and to his brother, he stated he had not sought the nomination and had done all in his power to stop it. In reality, however, as a leading candidate for the nomination, he had done little to discourage it.

This ambiguity was a pattern Washington would repeat when asked to chair the Constitutional Convention and when he accepted the Presidency of the United States. It was as if he were trying to convince himself that his success was not a result of his own ambition or his own doing but that it was thrust upon him from outside sources. It was fairly obvious, however, in June, 1775, that his uniform was advertising his willingness to serve in the capacity of commander in chief.

His brief acceptance speech made two main points. First, he explained that he did not feel qualified for the position: “But lest some unlucky event should happen unfavorable to my reputation, I beg it may be remembered by every Gentleman in the room, that I this day declare with the utmost sincerity, I do not think myself equal to the Command I (am) honored with.” Second, he wished to serve without pay.

In just a few words, George Washington became the military leader of the American Revolution and a traitor to the British Empire to which he had sworn allegiance. He stood before Congress not only as the military leader of the American Revolution but also as the only member of the Continental Army. Since Congress had elected their general before there even was an army, it was up to Washington to make that army a reality.

Nobody understood the odds of winning against the British better than Washington, but he was not convinced it would come to open warfare. He believed that King George III would be impressed with the American resistance and would order Parliament and his ministry to work towards an acceptable compromise with the Americans. In a letter to his wife, shortly after he was commissioned as commander in chief, Washington wrote that he expected to be home by autumn. Washington had no idea that when he left in 1775 for Philadelphia that, with the exception of one stopover in 1781, he would not return to Mount Vernon until 1783.

As the new commander in chief in 1775, Washington knew if the situation deteriorated into armed conflicted, even raising an army would be a nearly insurmountable task. Then taking that army up against one of the largest, best-trained, most-experienced forces in the world would leave little chance for victory. But Washington knew, as did the rest of the Congress, that doing just that was necessary.

No one was more pleased with the vote than John Adams, who had lobbied hard for the nomination of Washington. He felt Washington was the best candidate; in fact, he felt Washington was the only candidate who should serve in that capacity. However, even Adams had some misgivings about the chain of events that Congress had initiated that day. Specifically, he was concerned about Washington. Adams knew that a man like Washington, despite his seeming reluctance, was ambitious. Adams recognized the danger of setting up a man to be the symbol of the Revolution, especially if he were as ambitious as Adams believed Washington to be. In his reading of history, Adams knew that strong, courageous men such as Washington often sought as much power as they could attain. If Washington were successful, he would become the kind of hero people would worship and revere with such zest that he could assume any power he wished to have. He might even become “king” of the new republic—the very thing the Revolution was fighting against.

Washington’s accomplishments during the years that followed are well known, his tactics legendary. He became the greatest hero of the most unlikely victory in the history of the world. Even though he won only three of the nine battles he fought in the Revolutionary War, those victories were enough to defeat the British. With the British surrender at Yorktown on October 17, 1781, a new nation was born. Washington became its iconic symbol, shrouded more in myth and legend than in fact. He, as “Father of Our Country,” came to represent what could be accomplished through strength of character, determination, and persistence.

Showing the same reluctance he had shown when taking command of the Continental Army, Washington went on to serve two terms as President of the United States. By the time his second term in office was nearing completion, he had helped to establish the country’s financial system and had all but eliminated the Indian threat east of the Mississippi River. In addition, the Jay’s Treaty and the Pinckney Treaty with Spain had expanded the new nation’s territory and removed some serious diplomatic difficulties. Even though there were fundamental differences between the members of the Democratic Republican Party and the members of the Hamiltonian Federalist Party by the time Washington’s second term neared completion, the two parties were at least united in their acceptance of the new federal government, although Washington had some concerns about the inability of the two parties to agree on very much else. Then, probably to John Adams’ relief, Washington retired after his second term ended in 1797, setting a precedent of two terms.

Washington delivered a masterly Farewell Address that made three very important points. His first point warned about political factionalism. The two political parties which had formed in the 1790s, had begun feuding almost immediately. Washington urged Americans to unite for the good of the whole country. His second point cautioned against making foreign alliances, specifically about getting involved in the war between France and Britain. Both parties were leaning towards stronger foreign ties: the Federalists with the British and the Democratic Republicans with the French. His final point called for maintaining political prosperity through morality and religion. Washington’s Farewell Address quickly became the political basis for the formation of the new nation. As the symbol of American republicanism, it was adopted as the nation’s political philosophy.

Washington returned to Mount Vernon, promising never to go more than ten miles from his beloved plantation again. But he broke his promise. Even after his retirement, Washington returned to Philadelphia and to military service at his country’s call to assist in raising another army, this time against the French. Washington’s position was intended more to scare the French—letting them know the old general of the Revolution was still around—than to lead another army into armed conflict.

Back home at Mount Vernon, George Washington was making plans for some improvements to the estate. On the morning of December 13, 1799, he worked outside in the cold and the rain with his compass, marking the ground where the improvements would take place. When he returned to the house, he was seized with chills and nausea and finally went to bed. By morning, his condition had worsened, and a doctor was sent for. Medical practice was crude in early American history. According to common practice, Washington was bled several times. After that, his strength began to fail. He died the evening of December 14, 1799, at the age of sixty-seven. It is believed he was most likely suffering from a form of laryngitis, but experts today believe he probably died from blood loss because of the more than two and a half quarts of blood his physician had bled from him in just over thirteen hours.

The reverence with which Americans consider Washington is unparalleled. His face appears on United States money, has been made into hundreds of statues and busts, and is carved on Mount Rushmore. His famous portrait hangs in classrooms and courthouses around the nation. His name has been used to name the nation’s capital, one state, and hundreds of public schools, universities, city streets, lakes, rivers, and monuments. And his name is forever linked in Americans’ minds with famous places and heroic battles in our distant past: Bunker Hill, Yorktown, and Valley Forge. George Washington so believed in the principles of his new nation and government that he refused to allow himself to dominate it. He helped bring this nation into existence by defeating the British and helped guide its early beginnings as the first President. Then he wisely stepped back, allowing the government to grow from the seeds he had planted.



Brother George Washington was raised a Master Mason at a young age on August 4, 1753, at Fredericksburg Lodge, Virginia (now known as Fredericksburg Lodge No. 4). While he was not active in his lodge—in fact, it is believed he did not attend any meetings between 1755 and 1777—he did comment favorably about the fraternity on numerous occasions, and he performed several Masonic functions. In 1791, Brother Washington described Masonry as being “founded in justice and benevolence.” He believed “the grand object of Masonry is to promote the happiness of the human race.”

On April 30, 1789, Washington was inaugurated the first President of the United States in New York. When the ceremony commenced, it was discovered that no Holy Bible had been provided to swear in the new President. Jacob Morton, who had been the marshal of the parade and was also the Master of the St. John’s Lodge, remarked that he could get the altar Bible used at the St. John’s Lodge nearby. He was encouraged to do so, and the Bible was retrieved. Washington was sworn in on that Bible by the Honorable Robert R. Livingston, Chancellor of the State of New York and Most Worshipful Grand Master of Free and Accepted Masons of the State of New York. Once Washington had finished his oath, he leaned over and kissed the Bible.

The Washington Bible has been used to inaugurate four additional Presidents: Harding in 1921, Eisenhower in 1953, Carter in 1977, and George H.W. Bush in 1989. It was intended to be used to inaugurate George W. Bush in 2001, but damp weather prevented its use. The Washington Bible has also been used in numerous public occasions including Washington’s funeral procession in New York, the dedication of the Washington monument in 1885, and the rededication of the monument in 1998. The Bible is still in active use by the St. John’s Lodge. When not in use or on tour, it is on display at Federal Hall in New York, the very place where George Washington swore his allegiance to the Constitution of the United States and became the “Father of His Country.”

In 1793, President Washington, wearing Masonic rega-lia, led a large procession of Brother Freemasons, military units, government officials, citizens, and stonemasons to the top of Capitol Hill, where he performed the Masonic ceremony of laying the cornerstone of the United States Capitol Building. The symbolic ceremony involved trying the cornerstone by the plumb, the level, and the square, and then blessing it with the corn of plenty, the wine of happiness, and the oil of joy. Using a symbolic trowel, he spread the symbolic cement which was meant to unite the individual stones of the building into one solid mass and to bring all Americans together as one people. The public cornerstone ritual is still practiced by Freemasons today.

Another story is that several State Grand Masters ap-proached Washington about forming a Grand Lodge of the United States, much like the Grand Lodge of England. They asked him to serve as Grand Master of this United States Grand Lodge. Washington declined the offer. To this day, each state in the Union governs its own lodges independently with no national Grand Lodge.

At the age of 62, George Washington, wearing Masonic regalia and the Past Master’s Jewel, sat for a portrait painted by artist William Joseph Williams. It is one of several portraits of George Washington as a Freemason.

As revered as Washington is by his country, he is re-vered to this day even more by his Masonic brethren. One uniquely American Masonic tradition is attributed to George Washington. Legend has it that George Washington first pre-sented an America flag to a Masonic Lodge during the Revolutionary War. The American flag has been displayed in American lodges ever since, and every Masonic meeting in the United States is opened with the Pledge of Allegiance.

Famous American Freemasons: Volume I is also available for Nook and Kindle.

Ringling Brothers: The Six Lost Aprons

I didn't write this.  This was sent to me, I thought it was interesting, and thought I'd share it.  The following article was adapted from a piece which appeared in the Baraboo News-Republic titled, "Yesteryear Revisited." The text and accompanying photographs were prepared and submitted by Brother Steve Emerson, a Baraboo Lodge Past Master.

Apron belonging to Alf T. Ringling

The night of January 21, 1891 in Baraboo, Wisconsin was a special night for many of the men of Baraboo, and it has a direct connection to a special happening, some 111 years later. The story includes six soon-to-be-famous brothers and involves the ceremonial regalia they wore on that special evening.

In those days the Baraboo Masonic Lodge No. 34, Free and Accepted Masons, still met, as did all other fraternal organizations, in rented upstairs halls in downtown.

The Lodge at this time, however, was strong enough that a building of their own was being considered. Members had arrived on horseback, by carriage or on foot, for the decisive evening, and the Temple was full.

Also, in Baraboo of that day, the spectacular seven-year rise to national prominence of the Ringling Brothers Circus had brought not only respect but also good fortune to many of the brothers. Their father, August, had been a struggling harness maker.

As is well known, there were seven Ringling boys, and young Henry had only recently become old enough for Masonic membership. It was most unusual for as many as six of the Ringling Brothers to be in town at the same time. It was especially unusual on this evening that the six brothers occupied many of the major chairs in the Lodge. All seven Ringling brothers, including John, were members of Baraboo Lodge, before the year was out, Father August Ringling would join his sons in the Masonic Order.


Special Aprons Made

On this particular night in 1891, with such famous brothers occupying the chairs, some very special aprons had been ordered as gifts. Made of the finest blue velvet instead of the plain white linen usually worn, each apron was embroidered with silver thread and tassels.

Central to the blue border was white lambskin, with the symbols of the office or chair being occupied embroidered thereupon. There is some speculation that the aprons were designed and produced by the Ringling Brother's Circus wardrobe department in Baraboo.

On the back of each apron is the name of the Ringling brother and the chair he occupied: Alf T., Worshipful Master; August, Senior Warden; Al., Junior Warden; Charles, Senior Steward; Henry, Junior Steward; and Otto, Tiler.

Religiously speaking, the Ringlings were members of St. John's Lutheran Church, but nearly every church in Baraboo was represented among the other brothers present that night.

Aprons Emerge

What happened over the years to the blue velvet and white lambskin aprons, with their silver embroidery, is of some interest.

It is known that Mrs. Ida (Henry) Ringling, not to be confused with Ida (Ringling) North, gave the aprons nearly 50 years ago to one Richard (Joe) Bennett, boyhood chum of Ida's grandson, Henry Ringling III. Henry III died in an auto accident near Baraboo in 1961, and Bennett had become a friend and frequent visitor to Ida, Henry's grandmother.

Among the gifts she gave to Joe were the aprons. It is presumed that they had been in the possession of Ida's husband, Henry Sr., and later with his wife Ida, since 1891.

Recently, an alert brother of Baraboo Lodge noted an apron listed for auction on E-bay.

Upon investigation, it was determined that not only was this an authentic original apron, but that all six were available!

Moreover, thanks to some caring people during the last 111 years, the aprons were in mint condition and were still kept in the original boxes. In some cases the original protective tissue paper was still present.

Significant financial outlays were promptly made by five Baraboo Masonic Brothers-Lee Hoppe, Merlin Zitzner, Dave Deppe, Skip Blake and Rick Lewison. Others have made contributions for preservation of the aprons. This made it possible for the aprons to be returned to Baraboo, and they are now in possession of the Lodge.

Plans for the Ringling aprons are incomplete, but because of their historic importance, they may be offered for display at the Circus World Museum in Baraboo. A similar display may appear on occasion at the Al Ringling Theatre, not even a dream for Al Ringling when his apron was presented to him in 1891.

It would be 24 years before Al would build, in Baraboo, what the Theatre Historical Society of America calls the very first of the theatre movie palaces, which became so popular throughout the country. It still operates today, in its entire pre-revolutionary French architectural splendor, as perhaps the longest-operating motion picture theater in the county. The stage is used some 60 times each year for live performances as well.

Back to the Meeting

So, as we take up the story of that special night in Baraboo Lodge in January 1891, the Ringling Brothers occupied the chairs, the aprons were presented, and the Lodge prepared to build its own building. It is known that a committee was appointed and a fine building was9 built, on the NW corner of Oak and Second Avenue.

It was this building, approved at the 1891 meeting, with the Temple rooms upstairs and McGann's Furniture on the ground floor, which would burn some 65 years later. This fire in 1957 destroyed nearly all of the Lodge records, regalia and artifacts.

By good fortune the ceremonial aprons had been removed by someone, and were cared for properly for 111 years. Now they have been returned to their rightful home in Baraboo, relics of a special night.

Special Ties

Baraboo Lodge No. 34 observed its 150th year in 2002. The anniversary booklet published to commemorate the event reports that eight Ringlings were raised in Baraboo.

Alfred T. (Alf) Ringling was raised on January 22, 1890; John was raised on March 1; Albert was raised on March 29; and Otto on April 9.

Eleven months later, on February 4, 1891, August G. Ringling was raised. Henry came next on March 18; and August, father Ringling himself, joined the Craft on August 19, 1891.

The city of Baraboo has a heritage of two communities: the circus and the Masonic community. On the surface they may appear completely different-the Circus being an entertainment form for "children of all ages," and the Masonic Lodge being a fraternal organization created to help men better themselves and their community.

A connection between these two organizations began when seven Ringling brothers and their father became Masons.

Throughout the years, there have been many Masons with circus backgrounds, including members of the Gollmar family (circus owners), the Moeller family (circus wagon manufacturers), General Tom Thumb, Harry Houdini, Buffalo Bill Cody, and Baraboo's own Jimmy Williams (a.k.a. Happy the Clown), Tony Vinicki (Smaha), Robert Hocum (great-grandson of the charter Junior Warden).

The formation in the early 1870s of the Shrine helped create the bonds that grew between the Circus and Masonry. The circus is one of the largest fund raising events for Shrine clubs. It is also a major source of income for circus performers.



Todd E. Creason is the author of Famous American Freemasons: Volumes I & II where you'll find many other great stories about famous Freemasons.

On This Day In History in 1752: Ben Franklin Gets a Charge


On this day in 1752, Benjamin Franklin flies a kite during a thunderstorm and collects a charge in a Leyden jar when the kite is struck by lightning, enabling him to demonstrate the electrical nature of lightning. Franklin became interested in electricity in the mid-1740s, a time when much was still unknown on the topic, and spent almost a decade conducting electrical experiments. He coined a number of terms used today, including battery, conductor and electrician. He also invented the lightning rod, used to protect buildings and ships.
Franklin was born on January 17, 1706, in Boston, to a candle and soap maker named Josiah Franklin, who fathered 17 children, and his wife Abiah Folger. Franklin's formal education ended at age 10 and he went to work as an apprentice to his brother James, a printer. In 1723, following a dispute with his brother, Franklin left Boston and ended up in Philadelphia, where he found work as a printer. Following a brief stint as a printer in London, Franklin returned to Philadelphia and became a successful businessman, whose publishing ventures included the Pennsylvania Gazette and Poor Richard's Almanack, a collection of homespun proverbs advocating hard work and honesty in order to get ahead. The almanac, which Franklin first published in 1733 under the pen name Richard Saunders, included such wisdom as: "Early to bed, early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise." Whether or not Franklin followed this advice in his own life, he came to represent the classic American overachiever. In addition to his accomplishments in business and science, he is noted for his numerous civic contributions. Among other things, he developed a library, insurance company, city hospital and academy in Philadelphia that would later become the University of Pennsylvania.

Most significantly, Franklin was one of the founding fathers of the United States and had a career as a statesman that spanned four decades. He served as a legislator in Pennsylvania as well as a diplomat in England and France. He is the only politician to have signed all four documents fundamental to the creation of the U.S.: the Declaration of Independence (1776), the Treaty of Alliance with France (1778), the Treaty of Paris (1783), which established peace with Great Britain, and the U.S. Constitution (1787).

And of course, Benjamin Franklin was a very active Freemason.  He very much wanted to join the Freemasons, but at first he had a difficult time getting invited to join. Much like Franklin, the Freemasons were dedicated to civic works and fellowship. They held a nonsectarian policy about religious toleration which mirrored his beliefs. Franklin also saw membership as a step on the social ladder. In hopes of currying favor with the Freemasons, he began to publish small, favorable pieces about the Freemasons in his newspaper. When that did not work, he tried a different tactic. In December of 1730, he published a long article in his paper claiming to have un-covered some of the secrets of the Freemasons. He claimed one of these secrets was that many of the so-called “secrets” were actually hoaxes. Within a couple of weeks, Benjamin Franklin was initiated into the St. John’s Lodge. Shortly after his initiation, his newspaper printed a retraction of the article and put in its place a glowing piece about the positive influences of Freemasonry.


Brother Benjamin Franklin became a Master Mason at St. John’s Lodge in Philadelphia in 1731. He was a very active Freemason his entire life, eventually becoming Master of his Lodge and later, in 1734, the Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. In 1749, he was appointed Provincial Grand Master of Massachusetts. He also visited the Grand Lodge in England and was accepted as a member of the influential Lodge of the Nine Sisters (or Nine Muses) in Paris, where he assisted with the initiation of Voltaire as a Master Mason and helped in the election of such influential members as John Paul Jones. It seems unusual that a man such as Benjamin Franklin would join Freemasonry. He was an innovator, an inventor—someone who was always at the forefront of new ideas and new philosophies, yet the organization he joined, and so faithfully served, was an organization all about tradition and ancient ritual.

Perhaps Franklin saw Freemasonry as a model of what a proper governing body should be; in fact, inferences about Freemasonry and the development of the ideals in the United States have been made before. Lodges have always elected their own leaders and practiced tolerance of all religious beliefs. Whatever it was that Franklin admired in the organization, he never tried to change it. In fact, Franklin worked hard to preserve it by helping to create the by-laws of the St. John’s Lodge in Philadelphia and by printing the American Constitutions for Freemasonry.

The epitaph he wrote for himself only very slightly disguises the Masonic theme of immortality which our legend attests and that he believed:
The Body of
B. Franklin,
Printer:
Like the Cover of an old Book,
Its contents torn out,
And stript of its Lettering and Gilding,
Lies here, Food for Worms.
But the Work, shall not be wholly lost,
For it will, as he believed, appear once more,
In a new & more perfect Edition,
Corrected and amended
By the Author.


Franklin died at age 84 on April 17, 1790, in Philadelphia. He remains one of the leading figures in U.S. history.

Book Review: A Pilgrim's Path


I just re-read this book.  I don't know how many books I've read on the topic of Freemasonry, but this is without doubt one of my absolute favorites.  In fact, I read it before I was a Mason, and it's part of the reason I joined.  John J. Robinson wrote three books, and all of them are good. 
In A Pilgrim's Path Robinson, a non-Mason at the time he wrote it, goes into depth about what a Freemason actually is.  Where it originated.  He talks about it's values, tenets, and the real goals of the fraternity.  Then he very effectively deconstructs all the misconceptions, fabrications, and misstakements made about the fraternity over its long history.  It's probably one of the best books that's ever been written about what Freemasonry is, and what it is not.
 
I'd say Born In Blood is a close second as far as my favorites go.  He wasn't a Mason when he wrote this one either. It goes into some depth about Freemasonry's history long before it revealed itself to the public in 1717, starting back with the 1318 Peasant's Revolt in England, and its ties to the Knights Templar, long after they were supposedly destroyed.
Dungeon, Fire, & Sword is also good.  It tells some of the backstory of the Knights Templar during the Crusades, and their later destruction by the Catholic Church.  It asks the question--did the Knight's Templar end there, or did they survive by going underground and passing on their values, tenents, and virtues through the guilds of stonemasons that were building the great cathedrals, castles, and palaces across Europe.

John J. Robinson later became a Freemason.  I think he liked what his research told him about the fraternity. 

Good reads.  Check them out.
 

Freemason Quote: Will Rogers



"Live in such a way that you would not be ashamed to sell your parrot to the town gossip."


~Will Rogers
Claremore Lodge No. 53, Oklahoma

On This Day In History in 1965: First American Space Walk



On June 3, 1965, one hundred and twenty miles above the earth, Major Edward H. White II opens the hatch of the Gemini 4 and steps out of the capsule, becoming the first American astronaut to walk in space. Attached to the craft by a 25-foot tether and controlling his movements with a hand-held oxygen jet-propulsion gun, White remained outside the capsule for just over 20 minutes.

NASA's Gemini program was the least famous of the three U.S.-manned space programs conducted during the 1960s. The Gemini space flights were the first to involve multiple crews, and the extended duration of the missions provided valuable information about the biological effects of longer-term space travel. When the Gemini program ended in 1966, U.S. astronauts had also perfected rendezvous and docking maneuvers with other orbiting vehicles, a skill that would be essential during the three-stage Apollo moon missions.